Saturday, May 23, 2020

The Theory Of Lying As Being The Most Widely Accepted...

Webster’s Dictionary defines lying as â€Å"an assertion of something known or believed by the speaker to be untrue with the intent to deceive.† Although there are many definitions of what lying is they are often condemned wrong by many philosophers. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy describes one definition of lying as being the most widely accepted definition. â€Å"A lie is a statement made by one who does not believe it with the intention that someone else shall be led to believe it.† The reason this definition is often accepted by most is because in order to object and revise this definition in anyway one must first explain the four imperative conditions for lying. An individual must first make a statement, the individual must believe the†¦show more content†¦The individual telling the respectable lie does not lie for any type of personal gain or satisfaction. In Judith Viorst piece The Truth about Lying, states the reason why people tell respect able, or protective lies, is because â€Å"they are often convinced that the truth would be too damaging.† Judith Viorst goes on to state that â€Å"they lie because they feel there are certain human values that supersede the wrong of having lied.† An example Judith Viorst uses to describe this type of lie is parents lying to their children about their marital status. The couple may not be want to inform their children of their failing marriage to avoid the possibility of any emotional damages the truth may cause. Another example of a respectable lie would be a combat medic lying to a dying Soldier in order to keep the Soldier calm so they may pass away in peace. An excusable can be described as a lie that is understandable and inconsequential. This specific type of lie is universally known as a white lie. An excusable lie does not always cause harm to any one person. Instead, this type of lie is most times used by an individual who is lying to avoid blame or punishment. An example would be a Soldier showing up late to physical training because they over slept and then telling their Sargent they were late because they had a flat tire. In The Truth about Lying, Judith Viorst discusses social lies. She stated that most people she talked to

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Essay on Dating Anxiety - 708 Words

Dating Anxiety Have you ever been really stressed about something? Think of the time when you have been the most stressed out. Multiply that to the 10th power and you have me before a date. It seems to me dating and stress are like salt and pepper; you almost never have one without the other. Endless anticipations flood your mind, making it almost impossible to keep a continuous train of thought. The worst thing about dating is that you get seriously stressed out for one lousy night. It’s enough to turn a sane mind into a basket case. So much energy is put into preparing for a night that ends up being pretty lame. One thing is for sure; dating is not worth the stress it brings. Here are some examples of typical stresses you are faced†¦show more content†¦Tension is filling the house so you decide to wait outside. While waiting for your date you get ambushed by mosquitoes. Now your arms are covered in itchy red bumps that will be nagging at you the entire evening. By the time your date finally arrives, your hair has turned into a frizzy rat’s nest from waiting in the humidity, not to mention you are in the worst mood possible. You get in the car trying to fake a genuine smile and just when you start to chill out and relax the next issue is faced: where to go. Of course your date leaves this crucial decision entirely up to you. After thinking through all of the spots you like to go to, you pick one that seems to suit you both. Unfortunately, you picked the place where your date’s ex-girlfriend likes to go. So you spend the whole evening trying to spark a good conversation as your date jealously eyeballs all the guys his ex is flirting with. After you realize the night is not going to get any better, you get the tab and ask your date for a ride home. Just when you think it’s over and you’re in the clear, you arrive at the most awkward situation of the evening: saying goodnight. Tradition says that there must be a kiss before the night is officially over, but there is absolutely no physical attraction betweenShow MoreRelatedThe Many Benefits of Online Dating Essays884 Words   |  4 Pagesaspects of our lives conform to the internet, that online dating should also begin to be more prevalent in how we form new romantic relationships. Online dating is the new normal, and this is more evident now than ever. Online dating gives people searching for a new union an edge that they didn’t have before. They are able to â€Å"shop† for potential connections before their initial contact. According to Droge and Voirol (2011), online dating is here to stay because it allows people to more carefullyRead MoreKeeping The Ground Rules For Dating Essay1509 Words   |  7 PagesNow that my daughters have reached teenage hood, I know dating will be right around the corner. Not that silly elementary school boyfriend girlfriend stuff, but real honest to goodness dating. My husbands idea of dealing with this is to make sure any boy who comes calling sees him sharpening knives or playing with some life threatening power tool. I think we ll go my way first, setting the ground rules for dating. Setting ground rules with your daughter shouldn t be too hard; after all she wantsRead MoreWhat Happens When Science Interferes With Your Sex Life?941 Words   |  4 PagesBy 2040, We Might All Be Da ting Robots According to a recent report, 70% of all relationships will be initiated via online interactions by the year 2040. Online dating is an incredibly useful tool for single men today, but how about experiencing an entire relationship in virtual reality? As Business Insider reports, the study, conducted by eHarmony and Imperial College Business School, investigates various ways men and women will romantically interact in the future. From eliminating awkward silencesRead MoreHow Technology Has Influenced The Way People Interact With Each Other1542 Words   |  7 Pageswho access these sites, actually meet with their partner, and who has an outcome of a long term relationship. They compare the percentage of the users of the sites and smartphone apps.â€Å"One in every ten American adults has used an online dating site or a mobile dating app† (Smith and Duggan, 2). Those who are serious about finding their match on these sites have met the other mate face-face and a number of them kept their relationship strong. An observation made and demonstrated statisticallyRead MoreOnline vs Traditional Dating Essay745 Words   |  3 PagesOnline vs. Traditional dating Over the years and even decades the tradition of dating has changed drastically. We now have online dating which is one of technologies new advances. Although people may prefer to `the new aged tools of dating, there is differences and similarities between old fashion dating and online dating. Time plays a huge part with the two.   In today’s society there is hardly any time to try to approach a stranger to ask for a date. Usually single people do not have the timeRead MoreTaking a Look at Online Dating1987 Words   |  8 PagesOnline Dating A young couple in their early 20’s who stay in San Diego found love on the online dating site Pof. Ashley and Corey both San Diego natives were active users on Pof until they both found each other. Ashley had just got out of a 2 year relationship that led her to feeling lonely and having trust issues. Ashley’s friend had suggested Pof to her. 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It has been noted that anxiety has had an increase in teens recently. In the last 30 years, the statistics for anxiety in fifteen to sixteen year olds have doubled for both girls and boys (â€Å"Increased Levels of Anxiety†¦Ã¢â‚¬  1). It is said, â€Å"in societal moments like theRead MoreTechnology And Its Impact On Society1596 Words   |  7 Pagesshe argues that for many people, rather than being a ground for comfort, the internet and technologies tend to bring different levels of anxiety. In agreement, many people are relying too much on technology to solve their problems and anxieties. People within society seek technology to help relieve anxiety, yet they do not realize that they are creating new anxieties such as trying to pursue acceptance from others, permanency of the internet, and connectivity to everyone. Technology is powerful. YesRead MoreIntro to Psychology Essay1152 Words   |  5 Pages12/11/12 Cierra Miller ciermill Dr Herold I. Describe: Anxiety is something I have been dealing with since I was in my childhood. I never fully understood anxiety until it started getting worse as I got into my adolescent stage. I had talked to my mom and grandma about it a lot of times to make sure I was okay. I have been through several both anxiety and panic attacks. I have been one to worry about everything. Pathological anxiety and fear was very random for me. I never understood what was

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Republic Day Free Essays

Dear brothers and sisters, India celebrates our 63nd Republic Day which is one of three national days in India. Commonly 63rd Republic Day is a public holiday in most of the countries to honor the day on which the country first became republics. In such some are Commonwealth countries, the British sovereign was ruling the state until the change of status. We will write a custom essay sample on Republic Day or any similar topic only for you Order Now Even though India obtained freedom on August 15, 1947, Indian Constitution implemented and came into effect only on January 26, 1950. King George VI, the last and only â€Å"King† of the modern India, was leading our state during the evolution period from 1947 to 1950. Lord Mountbatten and C. Rajagopalachari were serving as the Governors-General of India at that time. Afterwards Rajendra Prasad was elected as the first president of India on January 26, 1950. With this the Parliament officially approved the Constitution of India and declared itself as a â€Å"Republic† on January 26, 1950, a date thereafter celebrated every year as Republic Day in India. The Constitution had been prepared by the Constituent Assembly based upon India is becoming the liberal from the British rulers in 1947. So we can consider 26th of January was initially India’s â€Å"Independence Day†. As everybody know Mahatma Gandhi, the father of nation, had taken a lot of efforts to get freedom for India by many symbolic acts during India’s Freedom Struggle against the British colonial rule. Acceptation of the Constitution on January 26, had given an extra strength to Country that has obtained liberty from the British Raj on August 15, 1947. There are two other annual national holidays in India apart from Republic day. One is Independence Day on August 15, 1947 and other one is birthday of Mohandas K Gandhi or Mahatma Gandhi on October 2. Lets talk about India Republic Day celebration official celebration in New Delhi. According to he Republic Day celebration on January 26th every year a grand parade is held in New Delhi, the Capital of India, beginning from Raisina Hill near the Presidential Palace Rashtrapati Bhavan, along the Rajpath, past India Gate and on to the historic Red Fort in the heart of the city to honor this occasion. Defence forces of state, Indian Army f orce, the Indian Navy and the Indian Air Force performs the past in parade with their ceremonial dress and official decorations on this auspicious occasion of Republic Day. The President of India, who is also the Commander in Chief of the Indian Armed Forces, takes the salute from the parade. There will be an invited Head of State of another nation as Chief Guest of the parade which is the highlights of Republic Day celebrations. The Republic day parade also involves many customary dance groups, to signify the cultural legacy of India. At the end of parade Air Force jets perform a colourful flypast by in a tiranga formation which is adventurous and eye-catching at a time. Similar celebrations with such parades are held in the capitals of all the states of India on the Republic day. The Governor of the each state takes the salute in their respective celebrations. More over all official government offices will also celebrate this national day which is also considered as people’s day. At the beginning of parade on Republic day, the Prime Minister of India wears a wreath at the Amar Jawan Jyoti at India Gate, honoring all the jawans who missed their worth lives for the country in the war. Then he address the public and give Republic day message in his Republic day speech. Next to this the President comes in his motorcade with the escorts of his bodyguards. Foreign Head of State – who is the Chief Guest at the celebration will follow the President in the Republic day Parade. Once finish this salutation, a 21 gun salute is presented, the President unfurls the National Flag and the National Anthem is performed. This regards the beginning of the parade. The Republic day Parade commences with winners of bravery awards passing the President in open jeeps. Then all of the Armed Forces of India divisions salute the President of India. The Republic parade also sees the Indian Military exhibiting its latest acquirements such as tanks, missiles, radars, etc. There are also considerable parades from the various departments Police contingents, Home guards , Civil Defence and the National Cadet Corps. A colorful cultural parade will follow the military parade. In this cultural parade India’s wealthy cultural tradition is displayed with tableaux from various states. Each state represents its distinctive festivals, historical locations and art forms. The next will be the ride past of children, who have won national bravery award winners at last year, on elephants. School-children from all over the country also take part in the parade on the republic Day. The most adventurous item is the next one, displays of skillful motor-cycle riding, usually by Armed Forces. Following this the fly past of Indian Air Force salutes the president symbolically by fight planes. The republic Day celebration will not be end in one day. The official closing ceremony of Republic Day festivities will be held on the third day evening of January 29 after Republic Day. This is renowned as Beating the Retreat. On this occasion of this Republic Day we should stick with our own pledge for our Bharatha Matha to save the country and ourselves. The Republic day pledge should be against terrorism and corruption and we should stand for honesty which is taught by Mahatma Ghandi, father of the country. Also our leaders must be corruption free and alert to threats those we are facing from the countries like Pakistan, China and US. Unlike the US, Pakistan and China have been aggressive ups and downs in India’s relationship with them. Therefore Leaders in Indian Government must attempt with effective discussions to eliminate the issues which are threatening India recently. India should not come again in the situation like attacks to Mumbai, Indian most commercial City. Let’s dream and hope for corruption free and other threats free peaceful India in upcoming years and contribute from our side. How to cite Republic Day, Papers Republic Day Free Essays Republic Day is India’s great national festival. The Constitution of India has been in effect since January 26, 1950, a date celebrated annually as Republic Day in India. It is a national holiday in India. We will write a custom essay sample on Republic Day or any similar topic only for you Order Now To mark the importance of this occasion, It is celebrated every year on January 26, in New Delhi with great pomp and pageant and in capitals of the States, as well as at other headquarters and important places with patriotic fervor. Background It was the Lahore Session of the Indian National Congress at midnight of December 31, 1929 – January 1, 1930, that the Tri-Colour Flag was unfurled by the nationalists and a pledge taken that every year on January 26, the â€Å"Independence Day† would be celebrated and that the people would unceasingly strive for the establishment of a Sovereign Democratic Republic of India. The professed pledge was successfully redeemed on January 26, 1950, when the Constitution of India framed by the Constituent Assembly of India came into force, although the Independence from the British rule was achieved on August 15, 1947. It is because of this that August 15 is celebrated as Independence Day, while January 26 as Republic Day. Celebrations To mark the importance of this occasion, every year a grand parade is held in the capital, from the Raisena Hill near the Rashtrapati Bhavan (President’s Palace), along the Rajpath, past India Gate and on to the historic Red Fort. The different regiments of the Army, the Navy and the Air Force march past in all their finery and official decorations. The President of India who is the Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces, takes the salute. In the States, the Governors take the salute, and in Taluqas and administrative headquarters on same procedure is adopted. At Vijay Chowk in New Delhi, three days later (i.e. 29th January) the massed bands of the Armed Forces â€Å"Beat the Retreat† in a majestic manner. The Republic Day celebrations have rightly become world famous as one of the greatest shows on earth drawing thousands of eager sight-seers from all over the country and many parts of the world. No other country can draw on such a wealth of tribal traditions and cultures, so many regional forms of dances and dress. And, no other  country in the world can parade so many ethnically different people in splendid uniforms as India’s Armed Forces. But they are all united in their proven loyalty to the Government elected by the people and in their proud traditions and legendary gallant How to cite Republic Day, Papers Republic Day Free Essays Republic Day Speech 2009 Ladies Gentlemen! My heartiest felicitations to you on the occasion of 60th Republic Day! This is a sacred day for each one of us, when we come together to pay tribute to the freedom fighters and martyrs who laid down their lives for the sake of the independence and sovereignty of our nation. Today we remember the extraordinary contribution of all those, who have toiled to build a free and modern India. Chandigarh, in itself is a Mini India symbolizing a truly dynamic City, with a success story of growth and development, achieved through public partnerships. We will write a custom essay sample on Republic Day or any similar topic only for you Order Now The Administration has made great strides in every field, with a special emphasis on ensuring social justice, safe and secure environment, high quality civic life and equal opportunities for everyone to grow. Adding another milestone, the City has become the first Plastic Free city after becoming the first Smoke Free City of the country. Various mega projects including Le Corbusier Center, Education City, Modern Terminal Market, Housing project for Slum Dwellers, Warehousing project, Milk Village etc. are in the pipeline. The upcoming Chandigarh International Airport will further boost the stature of Chandigarh at the national and international level. The Administration is dedicated to provide proper facilities to disadvantaged sections, senior citizens, economically weaker sections and has undertaken various schemes. Two landmark projects namely AASHA KIRAN – A vocational training Centre for differently abled and AASHREYA – A home where the mentally challenged, would learn and live with comfort and dignity, have been launched. Both these prestigious projects focus on empowerment and creation of an ‘Inclusive Barrier- Free Society’ with an aim of securing all rights of disabled persons in a practical way. The first phase of the Street Children Home Vocational Training Center at Village Maloya, a project set up of Rs. 7. 40 crore has already started. The second phase would be functional soon which will accommodate 300 street girls for empowering them. The Tourism Industry in the city has witnessed paradigm shift consequent to various initiatives taken by the Chandigarh Administration. Chandigarh Tourism has won Today’s Traveller Platinum Award for the most Responsible Tourism Plan of 2008. Efforts are being made by the Administration for getting the name of the city in UNESCO’s permanent World Heritage List. In order to pay homage to the creator of Chandigarh and great French Architect Le Corbusier, the Le Corbusier Centre has been launched in Sector 19. The Center showcases and exhibits the multifaceted life and works of Le Corbusier, to acquaint future generations with the rich cultural heritage of the city. Apart from organizing cultural events pertaining to the region, the Administration has also organized cultural events of other states. A major initiative was ‘Poompoohar 2008’ which was jointly organized by the Chandigarh Administration and the Tamilnadu Government. The Health and Family Welfare of the residents is always paramount. The first phase of the Regional Center for Mentally Handicapped in Sector 31 will be operational shortly providing comprehensive training and education to at least 1000 mentally challenged children. Facilities like diagnostic and medical care, training, counseling for the prevention of disability and training facility for the parents and guardians of the mentally challenged children will be made available. New facilities of Bronchoscopy and Computed Radiography System have been installed at Government Multi Specialty Hospital, Sector-16. Trauma Unit with emergency operation theatres has also been added in the GMSH 16. In order to provide assistance to the people residing in the backward areas of the city, Health Melas are being organized from time to time. The commitment to provide good facilities and infrastructure for health is being further reinforced by major infrastructural additions. The Administration is building a new OPD Block which will cost around Rs. 8. 46 crores, in the Govt. Multi Speciality Hospital, Sector 16. In addition, the work to have a new E-block, which will cost more than Rs. 23. 00 Crores, has already started in the GMCH-32. In the coming year the Administration also proposes to create additional infrastructures for various dispensaries, polyclinics and health facilities. The issue of Education has always remained at the top of the Administration’s priority list. With the incessant efforts made by the Administration the decks are finally cleared, for setting up the Education City, at Sarangpur Institution Area, with the signing of 9 MoUs with the Chandigarh Administration. We have further strengthened the Sarv Shiksha Abhiyan and expanded the Mid Day Meal Programme up to the upper primary level. We are also establishing new techniques to build high quality model Schools. Special emphasis is being laid on the Placement Cell in each college for curbing unemployment. The Chandigarh Administration has taken initiatives for promoting Chandigarh as a Knowledge City and has received huge investments from various IT Companies. The Rajiv Gandhi Chandigarh Technology Park (RGCTP) once completed will create more than 60000 IT jobs. Already, more than 8000 IT professionals are working in the RGCTP. I am happy to inform you that this year till November 2008, the software exports from RGCTP alone have crossed Rs. 400 Crores. Infosys has completed its second software development block and Tech Mahindra and Bharti Airtel are expected to operationalise their Centres by April 2009. Similarly most of the BTS sites are also under development. As a part of e-Governance initiatives, the Department Information Technology has made technology available at grass root level through Sampark Centers and e-Gram Sampark Centers. As many as 27 varied Public Utility Services are being provided from 10 e-Sampark Centers in different parts of the city and 13 e- Gram Sampark Centers spread across the villages of Union Territory. These centers have given major relief to the rural people by providing one stop solution centers in their neighborhood. In order to ensure transparency in its delivery mechanism, the Department of Food Civil Supplies has initiated the process of a smart card based Public Distribution System. The Detailed Project Report has been approved by the Government of India and the process of selection of the partner is in process. The Administration has dedicated two major projects to the residents of the city including the Beant Singh Memorial Center for Performing and Visual Arts and a New Lake in Sector 42. These two projects, have given city residents a major fillip, especially those residing in the Southern Sectors. With the reopening of the spruced up Tagore Theatre costing about Rs. 9 crore the city will witness more and more cultural activities. Though we have limited villages in U. T. of Chandigarh, it is a commitment of the Administration to provide city like facilities in the villages. While drinking water facility, sewerage, storm water have already been extended to the villages, in the next financial year the Administration proposes to provide city-like street lights and start shifting from tube-well-based water supply to canal-based water supply for the villages. Plans in this regard are already being prepared. Those villages which have come within the MC limit, have also been planned by the Municipal Corporation for up-gradation of all types of infrastructure including roads, street lights, water supply, storm water community centers, parks etc. We have all faced the problem of increasing traffic day-by-day in Chandigarh. The Administration, being conscious of this fact, has taken initiative to improve the roads. On this we will spend Rs. 26 crores on improving the existing roads, on widening and four-laning of roads of Chandigarh and also on route No. for Panchkula from Dakshin Marg, which is likely to be operational by May 2009. This has been a long pending demand of the residents of City which, I am glad, is being fulfilled. The residents of the city have been clamouring for large number of changes in the building rules of Chandigarh. After due deliberations with different stake holders and after a long time, the Chandigarh Administration has made larger number of people friendly and need based amendments in the building rules, which I am glad, will go a long way in meeting the day-to-day requirements of the people of Chandigarh. In addition, various processes for clearance of building plans etc. are also being streamlined so that people do not face any problem. The Sports infrastructure of the city is among the best in the country. Lately, the opportunity given to the UT Administration for holding the â€Å"54th National School Games 2008-09†, a Sports extravaganza, with more than 31 states and UTs participating has proven that the city possess State-of-the-art sports infrastructure required for hosting such National Events. The credit for this goes to the Sports Department which has been striving for not just creating world class infrastructure but also maintaining it. Soon, Floodlights would be installed at Cricket Stadium, Sector 16 and a new Astroturf Hockey Stadium and a New Basketball Court at Sector 42 would also be set up. The City Beautiful has an edge over entire nation as the young shooter Abhinav Bindra, brought laurels to the country by winning the first ever Olympic Gold in an Individual category. The Administration has taken up major initiatives in making Chandigarh a Slum Free City. The Chandigarh Housing Board will provide housing to 25,728 slum dwelling families thus making the city beautiful a Slum Free city. The Administration is also conscious of the housing needs of its citizens and as such plans have been made by the Board to provide more than 13000 houses in the UT. The implementation of providing more houses has already started with 2200 dwelling units of different categories already under construction. Keeping in view the recent advancements in the technology and the imperative need for conserving scarce natural resources, CHB plans to go in for construction of Green Intelligent Buildings. It is through our consistent efforts that the City Beautiful is known as the Green City of India. The Green cover of Chandigarh is 35. 7% of its total geographical area. The Botanical Garden has been developed over 176 acres and has the rarest medicinal plants, apart from being a walker’s paradise. The Department is also in the process of establishment of a world class aquarium. In order to contain pollution and encourage clean fuel in the city, the UT Administration has started a drive to replace the existing Auto Rickshaws with LPG driven Auto Rickshaws. The Chandigarh Police is among the most organized and Tech Savvy in the country. As per the recent survey conducted by one of the leading national magazine, Chandigarh has been rated as one of the top performing UT in handling law order. Keeping in view the need for cyber security, a Cyber Crime Investigation Cell has been established. In order to provide security to the tourists in the city, Tourism Police has been launched in the city with the combine efforts of the Department of Tourism and Chandigarh Police. On the auspicious day, I on behalf of Chandigarh Administration convey heartfelt sympathies to the victims of the Mumbai terror attacks. Such unfortunate incidents are cowardly acts and will never shake the faith of the nation. The country will forge towards development and growth and deal with these elements with an iron hand. On this momentous occasion, I once again call upon all of you, for an active participation and contribute to the progress and prosperity of the city and the nation as a whole. I, once again, convey my heartfelt wishes to you all on this auspicious day. Jai Hind! How to cite Republic Day, Essay examples Republic Day Free Essays Republic Day Speech 2009 Ladies Gentlemen! My heartiest felicitations to you on the occasion of 60th Republic Day! This is a sacred day for each one of us, when we come together to pay tribute to the freedom fighters and martyrs who laid down their lives for the sake of the independence and sovereignty of our nation. Today we remember the extraordinary contribution of all those, who have toiled to build a free and modern India. Chandigarh, in itself is a Mini India symbolizing a truly dynamic City, with a success story of growth and development, achieved through public partnerships. We will write a custom essay sample on Republic Day or any similar topic only for you Order Now The Administration has made great strides in every field, with a special emphasis on ensuring social justice, safe and secure environment, high quality civic life and equal opportunities for everyone to grow. Adding another milestone, the City has become the first Plastic Free city after becoming the first Smoke Free City of the country. Various mega projects including Le Corbusier Center, Education City, Modern Terminal Market, Housing project for Slum Dwellers, Warehousing project, Milk Village etc. are in the pipeline. The upcoming Chandigarh International Airport will further boost the stature of Chandigarh at the national and international level. The Administration is dedicated to provide proper facilities to disadvantaged sections, senior citizens, economically weaker sections and has undertaken various schemes. Two landmark projects namely AASHA KIRAN – A vocational training Centre for differently abled and AASHREYA – A home where the mentally challenged, would learn and live with comfort and dignity, have been launched. Both these prestigious projects focus on empowerment and creation of an ‘Inclusive Barrier- Free Society’ with an aim of securing all rights of disabled persons in a practical way. The first phase of the Street Children Home Vocational Training Center at Village Maloya, a project set up of Rs. 7. 40 crore has already started. The second phase would be functional soon which will accommodate 300 street girls for empowering them. The Tourism Industry in the city has witnessed paradigm shift consequent to various initiatives taken by the Chandigarh Administration. Chandigarh Tourism has won Today’s Traveller Platinum Award for the most Responsible Tourism Plan of 2008. Efforts are being made by the Administration for getting the name of the city in UNESCO’s permanent World Heritage List. In order to pay homage to the creator of Chandigarh and great French Architect Le Corbusier, the Le Corbusier Centre has been launched in Sector 19. The Center showcases and exhibits the multifaceted life and works of Le Corbusier, to acquaint future generations with the rich cultural heritage of the city. Apart from organizing cultural events pertaining to the region, the Administration has also organized cultural events of other states. A major initiative was ‘Poompoohar 2008’ which was jointly organized by the Chandigarh Administration and the Tamilnadu Government. The Health and Family Welfare of the residents is always paramount. The first phase of the Regional Center for Mentally Handicapped in Sector 31 will be operational shortly providing comprehensive training and education to at least 1000 mentally challenged children. Facilities like diagnostic and medical care, training, counseling for the prevention of disability and training facility for the parents and guardians of the mentally challenged children will be made available. New facilities of Bronchoscopy and Computed Radiography System have been installed at Government Multi Specialty Hospital, Sector-16. Trauma Unit with emergency operation theatres has also been added in the GMSH 16. In order to provide assistance to the people residing in the backward areas of the city, Health Melas are being organized from time to time. The commitment to provide good facilities and infrastructure for health is being further reinforced by major infrastructural additions. The Administration is building a new OPD Block which will cost around Rs. 8. 46 crores, in the Govt. Multi Speciality Hospital, Sector 16. In addition, the work to have a new E-block, which will cost more than Rs. 23. 00 Crores, has already started in the GMCH-32. In the coming year the Administration also proposes to create additional infrastructures for various dispensaries, polyclinics and health facilities. The issue of Education has always remained at the top of the Administration’s priority list. With the incessant efforts made by the Administration the decks are finally cleared, for setting up the Education City, at Sarangpur Institution Area, with the signing of 9 MoUs with the Chandigarh Administration. We have further strengthened the Sarv Shiksha Abhiyan and expanded the Mid Day Meal Programme up to the upper primary level. We are also establishing new techniques to build high quality model Schools. Special emphasis is being laid on the Placement Cell in each college for curbing unemployment. The Chandigarh Administration has taken initiatives for promoting Chandigarh as a Knowledge City and has received huge investments from various IT Companies. The Rajiv Gandhi Chandigarh Technology Park (RGCTP) once completed will create more than 60000 IT jobs. Already, more than 8000 IT professionals are working in the RGCTP. I am happy to inform you that this year till November 2008, the software exports from RGCTP alone have crossed Rs. 400 Crores. Infosys has completed its second software development block and Tech Mahindra and Bharti Airtel are expected to operationalise their Centres by April 2009. Similarly most of the BTS sites are also under development. As a part of e-Governance initiatives, the Department Information Technology has made technology available at grass root level through Sampark Centers and e-Gram Sampark Centers. As many as 27 varied Public Utility Services are being provided from 10 e-Sampark Centers in different parts of the city and 13 e- Gram Sampark Centers spread across the villages of Union Territory. These centers have given major relief to the rural people by providing one stop solution centers in their neighborhood. In order to ensure transparency in its delivery mechanism, the Department of Food Civil Supplies has initiated the process of a smart card based Public Distribution System. The Detailed Project Report has been approved by the Government of India and the process of selection of the partner is in process. The Administration has dedicated two major projects to the residents of the city including the Beant Singh Memorial Center for Performing and Visual Arts and a New Lake in Sector 42. These two projects, have given city residents a major fillip, especially those residing in the Southern Sectors. With the reopening of the spruced up Tagore Theatre costing about Rs. 9 crore the city will witness more and more cultural activities. Though we have limited villages in U. T. of Chandigarh, it is a commitment of the Administration to provide city like facilities in the villages. While drinking water facility, sewerage, storm water have already been extended to the villages, in the next financial year the Administration proposes to provide city-like street lights and start shifting from tube-well-based water supply to canal-based water supply for the villages. Plans in this regard are already being prepared. Those villages which have come within the MC limit, have also been planned by the Municipal Corporation for up-gradation of all types of infrastructure including roads, street lights, water supply, storm water community centers, parks etc. We have all faced the problem of increasing traffic day-by-day in Chandigarh. The Administration, being conscious of this fact, has taken initiative to improve the roads. On this we will spend Rs. 26 crores on improving the existing roads, on widening and four-laning of roads of Chandigarh and also on route No. for Panchkula from Dakshin Marg, which is likely to be operational by May 2009. This has been a long pending demand of the residents of City which, I am glad, is being fulfilled. The residents of the city have been clamouring for large number of changes in the building rules of Chandigarh. After due deliberations with different stake holders and after a long time, the Chandigarh Administration has made larger number of people friendly and need based amendments in the building rules, which I am glad, will go a long way in meeting the day-to-day requirements of the people of Chandigarh. In addition, various processes for clearance of building plans etc. are also being streamlined so that people do not face any problem. The Sports infrastructure of the city is among the best in the country. Lately, the opportunity given to the UT Administration for holding the â€Å"54th National School Games 2008-09†, a Sports extravaganza, with more than 31 states and UTs participating has proven that the city possess State-of-the-art sports infrastructure required for hosting such National Events. The credit for this goes to the Sports Department which has been striving for not just creating world class infrastructure but also maintaining it. Soon, Floodlights would be installed at Cricket Stadium, Sector 16 and a new Astroturf Hockey Stadium and a New Basketball Court at Sector 42 would also be set up. The City Beautiful has an edge over entire nation as the young shooter Abhinav Bindra, brought laurels to the country by winning the first ever Olympic Gold in an Individual category. The Administration has taken up major initiatives in making Chandigarh a Slum Free City. The Chandigarh Housing Board will provide housing to 25,728 slum dwelling families thus making the city beautiful a Slum Free city. The Administration is also conscious of the housing needs of its citizens and as such plans have been made by the Board to provide more than 13000 houses in the UT. The implementation of providing more houses has already started with 2200 dwelling units of different categories already under construction. Keeping in view the recent advancements in the technology and the imperative need for conserving scarce natural resources, CHB plans to go in for construction of Green Intelligent Buildings. It is through our consistent efforts that the City Beautiful is known as the Green City of India. The Green cover of Chandigarh is 35. 7% of its total geographical area. The Botanical Garden has been developed over 176 acres and has the rarest medicinal plants, apart from being a walker’s paradise. The Department is also in the process of establishment of a world class aquarium. In order to contain pollution and encourage clean fuel in the city, the UT Administration has started a drive to replace the existing Auto Rickshaws with LPG driven Auto Rickshaws. The Chandigarh Police is among the most organized and Tech Savvy in the country. As per the recent survey conducted by one of the leading national magazine, Chandigarh has been rated as one of the top performing UT in handling law order. Keeping in view the need for cyber security, a Cyber Crime Investigation Cell has been established. In order to provide security to the tourists in the city, Tourism Police has been launched in the city with the combine efforts of the Department of Tourism and Chandigarh Police. On the auspicious day, I on behalf of Chandigarh Administration convey heartfelt sympathies to the victims of the Mumbai terror attacks. Such unfortunate incidents are cowardly acts and will never shake the faith of the nation. The country will forge towards development and growth and deal with these elements with an iron hand. On this momentous occasion, I once again call upon all of you, for an active participation and contribute to the progress and prosperity of the city and the nation as a whole. I, once again, convey my heartfelt wishes to you all on this auspicious day. Jai Hind! How to cite Republic Day, Papers Republic Day Free Essays â€Å"No Hindu, No Muslim, No Christian, We are just Indian. † Respected judges, respected teachers and dear audience. Today we gather here to celebrate one of the National festivals of India, it is Republic day. We will write a custom essay sample on Republic Day or any similar topic only for you Order Now It is a great opportunities for me, as you allowed me to share few words on this occasion. On this day, it was January 26, 1950 we declared our country as a Republic country by adopting our own constitution. Actually, the preparation of our constitution was over earlier than this date but we choose January 26 for this, because this date has its own significance earlier than this day. It was January 26, 1930 on the bank of river Ravi, our freedom fighters pledged to attain â€Å"Sampurna Swaraj† and started new agitations to make India freedom from the British Rule. So, on 1950 on this day we declared our India as a Sovereign, Democratic and Republic. As this festival is related to our nation, it is celebrated all over our country. It celebrated in schools, colleges, government and non government offices and industries. It becomes a public festival as every Indian celebrates it. On the eve of this day, our honourable President gives a message to the nation. In his/her message he/she analyses the achievements of government and gives indications towards the future plans of the government towards the welfare of our country. All over the country people celebrates this festival. In national capital Delhi, there is a grand celebration. People from every corner of the country come here to participate in the grand Republic day celebration. The grand celebration occurs at the India Gate and Rajpath of New Delhi. The entire route is decorated with our national flags. Many foreign delegates also come to witness India’s progress on this occasion. At the beginning of the celebration, our Prime Minister salutes the martyrs of soldiers who laid their life lives for our country on Amar Jawan Jyothi, at the India Gate. Then he moves towards the celebration point. Then our President comes to the celebration point who is welcomed by our Prime Minister. All the commanders of three wings, Air Force, Army and Navy come to participate in the grand celebration. After this, flag hosting happens by our president and as soon as it completes we give a grand salute to our national flag by singing â€Å"Jana Gana Mana†¦. â€Å". Then the award ceremony starts, our president gives valuable awards for those who sacrificed their life in different situations for our country and countrymen. Even some kids also selected for bravery awards for this occasion, who showed their braveness while miserable conditions. Then the grand parade starts from the Vijay Chowk by all different wings, such as Army, Navy, Air force, Paramilitary forces, NCC, Tanks, Anti aircraft missiles, radars etc. Then a cultural program is organized by school children. After this dance program, tableaux from different states and national territories move on the route to show their culture and progress to the world. At the final stage aircrafts of Indian Air Force shows their talents in the sky. They send a message to the world that sky also in their limit. Overall, I can say it is not only the day of celebration but also the day to remember those great lives who sacrificed everything for this country. We should take a resolution to work for our country and its progress. So, at the end I want to say one thing that, we may from different region or religion but we are one, only one Indian. So, think about this country before thinking about your religion or region. Jai Hind. How to cite Republic Day, Papers

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Case Study Osteoporosis free essay sample

Thus, over time, there is loss of total bone volume. While everyone experiences slow, gradual loss in bone volume after age 30, those with osteoporosis have accelerated loss. 4. Describe the microscopic features of osseous tissue that normally help long bones withstand lateral stress without breaking. A lateral stress placed on a bone (e. g. on Margarets right femur) actually causes (A) compression of the bone on the side of impact and (B) stretching (tearing) on the side opposite of the impact. Mid-way through the bone, these compressive and tearing forces cancel each other out, and thus tough, compact bone is not needed in the middle. Instead, this middle area (or medullary cavity) is filled with yellow and red bone marrow. The outer rim (or bony collar) is what experiences the greatest stress on lateral impact. It withstands this stress in the following ways: (A) On the side of impact, the bony collar withstands compressive crushing by virtue of the tough hydroxyapatite crystals in its extracellular matrix. Arranged in concentric layers within the osteons (Haversian systems) of compact bone, these hydroxyapatite crystals serve as weight-bearing pillars for the bone. B) On the side opposite of the impact, the bony collar withstands tearing apart by virtue of the vertically arranged bundles of tough collagen in the extracellular matrix of bone. This collagen is oriented in a spiraling vertical pattern in which the fibers in each concentric lamella are roughly perpendicular to those in adjacent lamellae (i. e. a plywood-like design). 5. Describe the microscopic features of osseous tissue that normally help long bones withstand compressive stress without breaking. Surgeons performed an open reduction of Margarets fracture, immobilizing the bones with internal pins. The bony collar of long bones helps them withstand compressive stress by the mechanism described in #4A above (i. e. hydroxyapatite, weight-bearing pillars). In addition, long bones also withstand compressive forces by virtue of the spongy (cancellous) bone in the epiphyses. The interlocking network of bony plates (called trabeculae) found in spongy bone help to distribute the weight of the body out to the tough bony collar of the diaphysis. In this way, bony plates act much like the trusses or struts in old-time railroad bridges which distribute the weight of the train evenly over the entire bridge. Given the above considerations, Margarets osteoporotic femurs are vulnerable to fracture because of (A) the loss of spongy bone in the epiphyses and (B) the thinning of the bony collar in the diaphysis. 6. Describe the changes that a broken bone undergoes as it is healing. Steps in repair: A. fracture hematoma (i. e. blood clot) forms B. soft tissue callus(1st 3 to 4 weeks)| fibroblasts and osteoblasts migrate in from the periosteum and endosteum- fibroblasts lay down a collagen matrix some of the fibroblasts differentiate into chondroblasts (i. e. cartilage-forming cells) and lay down a fibrocartilage splint (i. e. oft tissue callus)| C. bony callus(starting 3 to 4 weeksafter the injury)| osteoblasts begin to replace the fibrocartilage splint with spongy and compact bone, forming a bulge that is initially wider than the original bony shaft| D. bone remodeling| as the patient starts to use (or bear weight on) the bone, the bone starts to remodel along lines of maximal stress (thi s remodeling process requires the activity of both osteoblasts and osteoclasts| 7. During her long recovery, Margaret is advised by her physician to begin weight-bearing as soon as she can. How does weight-bearing influence the process you described in question #6? Be specific in your answer and describe what weight-bearing does to bone at the microscopic level. ) The most popular hypothesis regarding the effect of weight-bearing on bone remodeling is called Wolffs law . Wolffs law states that bone grows and remodels in response to the mechanical stresses placed upon it (e. g. from muscle pull or gravitational pull). Thus, bone is laid down along lines of maximal stress. This is presumably why: A. long bones are the thickest midway down the diaphysis, where the stresses are the greatest. B. curved bones are the thickest where they are most likely to buckle (e. . note the thick greater trochanter of the proximal femur). C. the bony plates in spongy bone are oriented like weight-beari ng trusses. D. large bony processes are located where muscles attach to (and pull on) bone. When Margaret begins to bear weight on her right femur, she is introducing a lateral stress in the direction shown below: Physiological measurements reveal that placing stress on a bone generates a negative electrical charge on the compressed surfaces of the bone and a positive electrical charge on the stretched surfaces of the bone (see above drawing). Furthermore, studies have shown that negatively charged bony surfaces prevent parathyroid hormone (PTH) from stimulating bone resorption by osteoclasts. Thus, bone builds up in these areas. Conversely, bone resorption occurs on positively charged bony surfaces. Therefore, when Margaret begins to bear weight on her right femur, she is stimulating new bone formation on the medial side of her proximal femur and bone resorption on the lateral side of her femur. The net result of this remodeling process is the formation of a bone that is ideally designed for the stresses that it will most likely encounter. This is why physicians encourage weight-bearing as soon as possible during the bone-healing process. 8. Aside from any effect on the healing process, why else might Margarets physician want her to avoid a prolonged period of bed-ridden inactivity? Extended bed rest can have detrimental effects on an individual, especially if that individual is elderly. Prolonged bedrest increases ones risk of developing bedsores, respiratory infections, thrombophlebitis with possible pulmonary embolism as a complication, and further loss of bone volume (i. e. exacerbating Margarets already present osteoporosis). This last point, in fact, is an excellent illustration of the other side of Wolffs law i. e. bone is reabsorbed where it is no longer needed. Prolonged bed rest and immobility means less daily stress placed upon the skeleton. Over time, bone mass will be lost. This is seen in astronauts who spend several weeks in space the loss of gravity means that less stress is placed on the weight-bearing bones. Upon their return to earth, these astronauts are found to have notable loss in bone volume. 9. What risk factors does Margaret have for osteoporosis? Margaret has several risk factors for osteoporosis: A. She is elderly. (Osteoporosis is more common in the elderly, particularly postmenopausal women. ) B. She is a cigarette smoker. C. She is Caucasian. (Osteoporosis is more common in Caucasians than in individuals of other races. ) D. She is sedentary. (This lack of exercise means that she is placing less stress on her skeleton see discussion of Wolffs law in question #7. ) Other potential risk factors for osteoporosis include: A. estrogen depletion (the primary reason why postmenopausal women are commonly affected) B. decreased bone mass at the end of development C. testosterone depletion D. alcohol abuse E. alcium deficiency (especially a problem in the elderly because of decreased intestinal absorption of calcium). 10. What parts of the skeleton (i. e. what bones) are most vulnerable to the ravages of osteoporosis? The loss in bone volume due to osteoporosis is seen throughout the skeleton, affecting spongy bone slightly more than it affects compact bone. This loss in bone volume p laces bones at risk for fracture. The most common site of fracture is in the lower thoracic and upper lumbar vertebrae. Fractures here are typically compression fractures which may occur slowly and gradually over time, or occur suddenly. The gradual compression of the anterior portion of the vertebral bodies in the cervical and thoracic vertebrae give rise to the kyphosis deformity (humpback) of osteoporosis. Another common place for a fracture is in the distal radius, as the victim of osteoporosis attempts to break his/her fall by reaching out with the hands. The proximal femur is another common site of fracture (as occurred in Margaret). These hip fractures occur primarily in individuals over 75 and are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality (for reasons discussed in #8 above). Hip fractures are almost always associated with a fall, but it is not always clear whether the fracture precedes or follows the fall. Osteoporosis affects over 20 million Americans. In addition, over 1. 5 million people over age 45 suffer from osteoporosis-related fractures annually, most common of which are fractures of the hip, vertebrae, and limb bones The medical cost of treating patients with osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures was estimated in 1990 to exceed $10 billion annually. This number will rise as the baby boomers age. 11. Following her recovery, Margaret was placed on three medications: (A) oral calcium supplementation,(B) oral estrogen, and (C) oral alendronate sodium (Fosamax). Specifically describe how each of these medications works to treat Margarets condition. (A) oral calcium supplementation Calcium provides an important raw material for bone formation. (B) oral estrogen Studies clearly show that estrogen deficiency can accelerate osteoporosis, but the mechanism for the protective effect of estrogen is not clear. Estrogen may stimulate osteoblasts to lay down new bone (estrogen receptors have recently been found on osteoblasts). C) oral alendronate sodium (Fosamax) This drug inhibits the bone resorbing capabilities of osteoclasts. 12. Other treatments for osteoporosis include (A) sodium fluoride and (B) calcitonin. Describe how each of these medications works to treat osteoporosis. (A) sodium fluoride Sodium fluoride specifically stimulates new bone formation by activating osteoblasts. (B) calcitonin Calcitonin is a natural peptide hormone secreted by C-cells in the thyroid gland. Calcitonin is an inhibitor of osteoclasts, and thus slows down bone resorption. It also increases vitamin D production and absorption of calcium in the small intestine.

Monday, March 23, 2020

Current situation about the issues of animal experimentation from different views Essay Example

Current situation about the issues of animal experimentation from different views Paper Abstraction This aim of this research paper is chiefly to better understand the current state of affairs about the issues of carnal experimentation from different positions. Online articles, diaries, encyclopaedia and books were used for mention in this research paper. In kernel, this research paper by and large touches on the pros and cons of carnal experimentation. Supporters of carnal proving claim that this helps the development of of import drugs and interventions which in bend saves 1000000s of valuable human lives. Additionally, carnal testing is employed to salvage human lives because human lives are more valuable than carnal lives. Valuable cognition can be obtained through carnal experimentation to analyze the effects of a substance. This work will lend to people who are interested to cognize more about animate being testing and future research of similar subject. Animal Testing 1.0 Introduction We will write a custom essay sample on Current situation about the issues of animal experimentation from different views specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Current situation about the issues of animal experimentation from different views specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Current situation about the issues of animal experimentation from different views specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The Greeks believed that animate beings were a lesser signifier of life because animate beings could non believe like worlds did. Furthermore, this idea was continued by Christians who claimed that animate beings were less important because they had no psyche ( Vivisection, 2002 ) . Animal testing is the usage of unrecorded animate beings for research in order to better understand the consequence of certain substances towards human wellness. This application has been widely carried out in many industries. Numerous animate beings have been used for carnal testing, such as guinea hogs, coneies, Canis familiariss and mice. The issue of carnal testing has become a world-wide focal point these yearss due to statements brought up by those who are against carnal experimentation. Unquestionably, the pattern of carnal experimentation has increased enormously compared to the yesteryear. Harmonizing to Shandilya ( 2008 ) , it is estimated that 20 million animate beings are used for carnal experimentation annually for the intent of medical specialty and for proving other merchandises. Findingss from surveies indicate that less than 10 per centum of pure psychological researches use animate beings as trial topics, which do non include carnal topics used for cross-over medical experimentation ( American Psychological Association, n.d. , cited in Harding, L. , 2001 ) . However, there are some who province that animate being experiments are barbarous and immoral, besides go againsting an animate being s rights. This has caused many persons to hold with the motions of anti-vivisection administrations due to barbarous intervention towards animate beings. Although there are Torahs sing carnal proving implementing the decrease in the usage of animate beings for vivisection, oppositions of animate being experimenting are still debating about the topic of legalising it. If we view this topic from a broader position, it can be seen that carnal testing should be legalized as it aids scientist in the finds of new drugs and interventions to do wellness and medical specialty better, human life is more cherished than that of an animate being, and it is the most precise manner to happen out the effects of substances on a life being. This research paper will explicate why carnal testing should be legalized. Research findings are confined to the United States of America, since the topic of animate being testing is extremely debated there and the advancement of this issue in the US is comparative to other states. 2.0 Body of Report 2.1 Animal proving helps in the development of drugs and interventions. Presently, worlds are frequently exposed to assorted diseases which are life threatening, which includes bing diseases or new signifiers of diseases due to mutants and alterations in the environment. Hence, research workers are working hard in happening remedies for all these unwellnesss. From here, it can be seen that carnal testing is indispensable in the nutriment of human wellness. Animals will be used to analyze the consequence of freshly invented drugs, whether it will assist in bring arounding the disease. Speaking of the positive results of carnal testing, this includes the development of new medical specialty and interventions. Derbyshire ( 2004 ) mentioned that many medical progresss utilized carnal testing ; including production of insulin which was developed utilizing Canis familiariss, and cyclosporine, a powerful anti-rejection drug developed utilizing Primatess. Besides this, finds of assorted vaccinums have evolved through carnal experimentation. From here, it can be seen that carnal proving can steer us to finds of new cognition about life beings. Many drugs have been invented to carry through the purpose of rectifying diseases. However, the side effects of freshly invented drugs remain unknown. Therefore, carnal testing allows the rating of the danger of drugs before being used upon worlds which will greatly cut down the hazard before any human based tests are carried out ( About Animal Testing, n.d. ) . Drugs that are tested safe can so be used to salvage 1000000s of valuable human lives. The hereafter of medical scientific discipline still relies on animate being testing, and this clearly shows a demand in legalising carnal testing. There are some people who claim that the effects of drugs tested on animate beings may non be the same to worlds. Arthritis drug Vioxx, which caused 140 000 bosom onslaughts and shots in United States of America, was withdrawn from the planetary market even though it appeared to be safe when tested in animate beings ( Archibald, 2004 ) . However, scientists have proven that animate beings are highly alike to worlds and experiments done on them would bring forth similar consequences obtained through future human experiments ( About Animal Testing, n.d. ) . Hence, transporting out carnal proving on drugs would better the quality of human life indirectly. Therefore, to sum it all up, carnal testing should be legalized because it assists research workers in medical interventions besides drugs find, improves wellness and medical specialty and is able to prove the safety of drugs. Options of carnal proving are non every bit plausible as they are non every bit accurate as the consequences obtained from trials conducted upon animate beings. Hence, carnal testing should be encouraged alternatively of being suppressed. 2.2 The importance of human lives is given precedence over carnal lives. Differences bing between worlds and animate beings cause animate beings to have interventions which are different and unequal although both of them are alive. As animate beings differ from worlds as they do non hold scruples, they are considered inferior to worlds when it comes to the value of life. Sing that the lives of worlds are viewed as more valuable than carnal lives, animate beings will hold to be sacrificed in carnal experimentation. The pros and cons of carnal proving were debated with both sides being able to bring forth solid grounds for their bases. From the position of sense, it is mentioned that all living things are morally tantamount. However, the lives of worlds are superior over the lives of animate beings ( Garner, 2005 ) . Governments have to do a pick between the public assistance of worlds and the public assistance of animate beings. Which one is more of import, the life of a human or the life of an animate being? As Archibald ( 2004 ) points out, most people are willing to give the lives of animate being in carnal proving to salvage human lives. Even though human public assistance is the chief concern, the public assistance of an animate being is still taken into history by minimising the agony of animate beings when carry oning carnal experimentations. The Animal Welfare Act had been formed and reviewed invariably to protect animate beings and diminish the figure of vivisections carried out ( Monamy, 2000 ) . Every experiment affecting the use of animate beings is usually administered with anaesthesia. In concurrence with this, the experiments will non be repeated or animate beings used will be euthanized when barbarous intervention is involved. Animal testing can be accepted as it allows the betterment of human life quality without the agony of animate beings ( Garner, 2005 ) . Those who are against carnal proving argued that animate beings have the right to populate peacefully. Animal testing is regarded as unkind intervention towards animate beings as it violates carnal rights as their lives are valuable as good ( Le Fanu, 2003 ) . However, their statements are weak because animate beings lack the sense of judgement, and hence are non subjected to moral claims and carnal rights ( Cohen, 1986 ) . Hence, they can non be compared with human life. Equally long as the animate being is experimented upon without hurting, the public assistance of the animate being is non violated. Therefore, it is acceptable to legalise the activity of carnal proving as human life should be prioritized. Although there are many who are against carnal experimentation, the points asserted are non strong plenty to stop the activity of animate being proving. Supporters of carnal proving affirm that animate beings should non hold equal rights with worlds as both of these can non be compared. Animals lack the sense of judgement, therefore human lives ever come foremost before carnal lives. Animals are considered to be protected every bit long as animate beings receive minimal sum of agony. So carnal testing should be legalized in order to salvage more human lives. 2.3 Animal testing is helpful for analyzing the effects of substances. Many new chemical substances are produced every twelvemonth to run into the demand of the planetary market such as in agribusiness, medical specialty and decorative merchandises. The credits should be given to animal proving. The consequence of that peculiar substance has been studied to bring forth infinite helpful merchandises. This can increase the length of service of worlds besides bettering the human criterion of life. By carry oning experiments on animate beings, the research worker can derive priceless information from the populating specimen. Winston ( 2006 ) mentioned that 70 % of the Nobel awards for physiology or medical specialty are contributed from carnal proving. Hence, it is clearly shown that by executing researches on animate beings by analyzing the effects of a substance can convey a immense impact upon the universe. The find of cognition will be delayed or remain undiscovered if carnal testing is non carried out. As stated by Le Fanu ( 2003 ) , primates offer the best experimental theoretical accounts as they have 99 % similarity in cistrons with worlds. Animal testing can be carried out on Primatess to guarantee the safety of some drugs before being tested on worlds. The opportunity for both beings exhibiting the same consequence is high due to the similarity of their cistrons. This in bend can cut down the hazards faced by worlds when get downing the tests. Hence, animate beings are good tools for larning the effects of assorted substances. In malice of this, people who are in resistance to animal proving argue that it must non be legalized merely because carnal experimentation leads to medical discoveries and the result is more rewarding. This statement is deficient to warrant the drawbacks of carnal testing ( Derbyshire, 2004 ) . On the other manus, it is proven that the good result outweighs its drawbacks, so it is rational to legalise the activity of animate being testing. Without analyzing the effects of substances utilizing carnal testing, most of the major vaccinums against disease like infantile paralysis, German measles and hepatitis B used today would non be ( Derbyshire, 2004 ) . New drugs undergo in vitro research, computing machine mold and carnal testing before being tested on worlds. Therefore, every measure is critical in this procedure of analyzing the effects before a drug is introduced into the market. In short, the effects of a substance can be study by transporting out carnal proving which can supply priceless information besides the anatomy of some animate beings are similar to worlds. Even though carnal experimentation its disadvantages, there are still many benefits that can derive by transporting out carnal proving. Therefore, legalisation of carnal testing must be accepted. Furthermore, it can be a good tool for instruction and research intents. 3.0 Recommendation Normally, the use of animate beings for carnal proving delineated as inhuman treatment towards animate beings and should non be legalized. However, it is impossible to censor the pattern of carnal experimentation due to the benefits brought by animate being research towards world. Animal testing is a baronial action to prolong the public assistance of worlds. Since the pattern of carnal proving can non be stopped, the public assistance of animate beings can merely be protected by another attack. The rule of Three Rs , that is refinement , decrease and replacing can be practiced. The research workers are pledged to cut down the figure of animate beings used when executing a research. To utilize the least figure of resources to obtain the fastest consequences, research workers have the inclination of utilizing a smaller figure of animate beings during their research. This is an act that showed the willingness of world to cut down the inhuman treatment towards the animate beings. Besides this, scientists were asked to decrease the grade of agony of the animate being. This can be attained by exclude some gratuitous harmful actions affecting the animate beings. Last, alternate methods should be used whenever possible to replace the use of carnal testing ( Derbyshire, 2006 ) . For case, the public assistance of animate beings can be secured by making so. The pattern of carnal experimentation should compromise between the public assistance of worlds and animate beings so that harmoniousness can be achieved. Animal experimentation still can be practiced, and the Torahs should be purely enforced so that it is non violated by irresponsible people. 4.0 Decision Due to the increased use of carnal testing, the issue of carnal experimentation is acquiring extremely debated and remains relentless. After analyzing several points, it has revealed that carnal testing should be legalized as it helps in the advancement of medical specialty and wellness, human life is more valuable than carnal life, and helps to larn the result of a substance on a life being. Day by twenty-four hours, anti-vivisectionists try to govern out carnal testing by looking at this issue from the animate being s point of position. Concurrently, protagonists of carnal experimentation were able to rebut their statements, by claiming the public assistance of worlds should ever come first before animate beings. They viewed the topic of carnal proving from a broader position and the long term advantages that come from carnal experimentation. Life is neer perfect, some forfeits have to do to accomplish success for a better hereafter. However, carnal research should be carried out a s its advantages are more important than the disadvantages. Bibliography About Animal Testing, ( n.d. ) , Exploitation Animals for Testing: Pro s Versus Con s? viewed 27th March 2010, d hypertext transfer protocol: //www.aboutanimaltesting.co.uk/using-animals-testing-pros-versus-cons.html Archibald, K. ( 2004 ) , Animal Testing: Science or Fiction? viewed 5 February 2010, hypertext transfer protocol: //gan.ca/lifestyle/animal+testing/articles+on+animal+research/index.en.html Cohen, C. , ( 1986 ) †¦ Students Paper: †¦ C. , ( 1986 ) The Case for the Use of Animals in Biomedical Research , The New England Journal of Medicine 315, no. 14. 865-69 †¦ hypertext transfer protocol: //debatepedia.idebate.org/en/index.php/Debate: Animal_testing †¦ no rights. The Case for the Use of Animals in Biomedical Research The New England Journal of Medicine 315, no. 14 ( October 2 †¦ †¦ . 865-69, viewed 28th March 2010, hypertext transfer protocol: //people. †¦ †¦ . 865-69, viewed 28th March 2010, hypertext transfer protocol: //people. †¦ Students Paper: †¦ hypertext transfer protocol: //people.ucalgary.ca/~powlesla/personal/hunting/rights/cohen.txt Derbyshire, S. †¦ hypertext transfer protocol: //debatepedia.idebate.org/en/index.php/Debate: Animal_testing †¦ hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ucalgary.ca/~powlesla/personal/hunting/rights/cohen.txt Carl Cohen †¦ †¦ †¦ Derbyshire, S. , ( 2004 ) Vivisection: Put human welfare first viewed 5 February 2010, †¦ Students Paper: †¦ February 2010, hypertext transfer protocol: //www.spiked-online.com/index.php/site/printable/2468 †¦ hypertext transfer protocol: //debatepedia.idebate.org/en/index.php/Debate: Animal_testing †¦ medical intents. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.spiked-online.com/index.php? /site/article/43 †¦ †¦ /printable/2468 †¦ /printable/2468 Derbyshire, S. , ( 2006 ) Tha difficult statements about vivisection viewed 5 February 2010, †¦ Students Paper: †¦ February 2010, hypertext transfer protocol: //www.spiked-online.com/index.php/site/printable/223 †¦ hypertext transfer protocol: //debatepedia.idebate.org/en/index.php/Debate: Animal_testing †¦ medical intents. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.spiked-online.com/index.php? /site/article/43 †¦ †¦ /printable/223/ †¦ /printable/223/ Garner, R. , ( 2005 ) Animal Ethical motives , pp129-130, Polity Press, UK Harding, Lauri R.. Animal Experimentation. Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology. 2001. Encyclopedia.com. 25 Feb. 2010. Le Fanu, J. , ( 2003 ) Vivisection s underdoing-Why carnal experiments can non assist worlds . Monamy, V. , ( 2000 ) Animal Experiment: A usher to the Issues , pp29-34, Cambridge University Press, UK. Shandilya, R. ( 2008 ) Animal Testing Pros viewed 9 February 2010 †¦ Students Paper: †¦ February 2010 hypertext transfer protocol: //www.buzzle.com/articles/animal-testing-pros.html Vivisection. UXL †¦ hypertext transfer protocol: //debatepedia.idebate.org/en/index.php/Debate: Animal_testing †¦ better understood. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.buzzle.com/articles/animal-testing-pros.html [ 13 ] [ /en †¦ †¦ †¦ Vivisection. UXL Encyclopedia of Science. 2002. Encyclopedia.com. 26 Feb. 2010. Winston, R. , ( 2006 ) The shame of our silence viewed 27 February 2010, hypertext transfer protocol: //www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2006/may/31/animalwelfare.highereducation 2 % hypertext transfer protocol: //debatepedia.idebate.org/en/index.php/Debate: Animal_testing 1 % hypertext transfer protocol: //socyberty.com/issues/why-animals- can non -have-rights/ 1 % hypertext transfer protocol: //ca.answers.yahoo.com/question/index? qid=20080703061440AA4Sdcf 1 % hypertext transfer protocol: //debatepedia.idebate.org/en/index.php/Debate: Vegetarianism 1 % hypertext transfer protocol: //answers.yahoo.com/question/index? qid=20080703161238AAuxnzy 1 % hypertext transfer protocol: //answers.yahoo.com/question/index? qid=20080701091210AAbNKPp 0 % hypertext transfer protocol: //smartgirlpolitics.blogspot.com/2009/07/king-for-country-of-no-substance.html 0 % hypertext transfer protocol: //blog.peta.org/archives/2008/01/tax_meat_1.php 0 % hypertext transfer protocol: //www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3438100671.html 0 % hypertext transfer protocol: //www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3438100672.html 0 % hypertext transfer protocol: //www.spiked-online.com/Printable/0000000CA552.htm 0 % hypertext transfer protocol: //smartgirlpolitics.blogspot.com/2009_07_01_archive.html Abstraction This aim of this research paper is chiefly to better understand the current state of affairs about the issues of carnal experimentation from different positions. Online articles, diaries, encyclopaedia and books were used for mention in this research paper. In kernel, this research paper by and large touches on the pros and cons of carnal experimentation. Supporters of carnal proving claim that this helps the development of of import drugs and interventions which in bend saves 1000000s of valuable human lives. Additionally, carnal testing is employed to salvage human lives because human lives are more valuable than carnal lives. Valuable cognition can be obtained through carnal experimentation to analyze the effects of a substance. This work will lend to people who are interested to cognize more about animate being testing and future research of similar subject. ContentsPagesIntroduction1-2Body of Report Animal proving helps in the development of drugs and interventions. The importance of human lives is given precedence over carnal lives. Animal testing is helpful for analyzing the effects of substances. 3-4 5-6 7-8Recommendation9Conclusion10Bibliography11-12 Animal Testing 1.0 Introduction The Greeks believed that animate beings were a lesser signifier of life because animate beings could non believe like worlds did. Furthermore, this idea was continued by Christians who claimed that animate beings were less important because they had no psyche ( Vivisection, 2002 ) . Animal testing is the usage of unrecorded animate beings for research in order to better understand the consequence of certain substances towards human wellness. This application has been widely carried out in many industries. Numerous animate beings have been used for carnal testing, such as guinea hogs, coneies, Canis familiariss and mice. The issue of carnal testing has become a world-wide focal point these yearss due to statements brought up by those who are against carnal experimentation. Unquestionably, the pattern of carnal experimentation has increased enormously compared to the yesteryear. Harmonizing to Shandilya ( 2008 ) , it is estimated that 20 million animate beings are used for carnal experimentation annually for the intent of medical specialty and for proving other merchandises. Findingss from surveies indicate that less than 10 per centum of pure psychological researches use animate beings as trial topics, which do non include carnal topics used for cross-over medical experimentation ( American Psychological Association, n.d. , cited in Harding, L. , 2001 ) . However, there are some who province that animate being experiments are barbarous and immoral, besides go againsting an animate being s rights. This has caused many persons to hold with the motions of anti-vivisection administrations due to barbarous intervention towards animate beings. Although there are Torahs sing carnal proving implementing the decrease in the usage of animate beings for vivisection, oppositions of animate being experimenting are still debating about the topic of legalising it. If we view this topic from a broader position, it can be seen that carnal testing should be legalized as it aids scientist in the finds of new drugs and interventions to do wellness and medical specialty better, human life is more cherished than that of an animate being, and it is the most precise manner to happen out the effects of substances on a life being. This research paper will explicate why carnal testing should be legalized. Research findings are confined to the United States of America, since the topic of animate being testing is extremely debated there and the advancement of this issue in the US is comparative to other states. 2.0 Body of Report 2.1 Animal proving helps in the development of drugs and interventions. Presently, worlds are frequently exposed to assorted diseases which are life threatening, which includes bing diseases or new signifiers of diseases due to mutants and alterations in the environment. Hence, research workers are working hard in happening remedies for all these unwellnesss. From here, it can be seen that carnal testing is indispensable in the nutriment of human wellness. Animals will be used to analyze the consequence of freshly invented drugs, whether it will assist in bring arounding the disease. Speaking of the positive results of carnal testing, this includes the development of new medical specialty and interventions. Derbyshire ( 2004 ) mentioned that many medical progresss utilized carnal testing ; including production of insulin which was developed utilizing Canis familiariss, and cyclosporine, a powerful anti-rejection drug developed utilizing Primatess. Besides this, finds of assorted vaccinums have evolved through carnal experimentation. From here, it can be seen that carnal proving can steer us to finds of new cognition about life beings. Many drugs have been invented to carry through the purpose of rectifying diseases. However, the side effects of freshly invented drugs remain unknown. Therefore, carnal testing allows the rating of the danger of drugs before being used upon worlds which will greatly cut down the hazard before any human based tests are carried out ( About Animal Testing, n.d. ) . Drugs that are tested safe can so be used to salvage 1000000s of valuable human lives. The hereafter of medical scientific discipline still relies on animate being testing, and this clearly shows a demand in legalising carnal testing. There are some people who claim that the effects of drugs tested on animate beings may non be the same to worlds. Arthritis drug Vioxx, which caused 140 000 bosom onslaughts and shots in United States of America, was withdrawn from the planetary market even though it appeared to be safe when tested in animate beings ( Archibald, 2004 ) . However, scientists have proven that animate beings are highly alike to worlds and experiments done on them would bring forth similar consequences obtained through future human experiments ( About Animal Testing, n.d. ) . Hence, transporting out carnal proving on drugs would better the quality of human life indirectly. Therefore, to sum it all up, carnal testing should be legalized because it assists research workers in medical interventions besides drugs find, improves wellness and medical specialty and is able to prove the safety of drugs. Options of carnal proving are non every bit plausible as they are non every bit accurate as the consequences obtained from trials conducted upon animate beings. Hence, carnal testing should be encouraged alternatively of being suppressed. 2.2 The importance of human lives is given precedence over carnal lives. Differences bing between worlds and animate beings cause animate beings to have interventions which are different and unequal although both of them are alive. As animate beings differ from worlds as they do non hold scruples, they are considered inferior to worlds when it comes to the value of life. Sing that the lives of worlds are viewed as more valuable than carnal lives, animate beings will hold to be sacrificed in carnal experimentation. The pros and cons of carnal proving were debated with both sides being able to bring forth solid grounds for their bases. From the position of sense, it is mentioned that all living things are morally tantamount. However, the lives of worlds are superior over the lives of animate beings ( Garner, 2005 ) . Governments have to do a pick between the public assistance of worlds and the public assistance of animate beings. Which one is more of import, the life of a human or the life of an animate being? As Archibald ( 2004 ) points out, most people are willing to give the lives of animate being in carnal proving to salvage human lives. Even though human public assistance is the chief concern, the public assistance of an animate being is still taken into history by minimising the agony of animate beings when carry oning carnal experimentations. The Animal Welfare Act had been formed and reviewed invariably to protect animate beings and diminish the figure of vivisections carried out ( Monamy, 2000 ) . Every experiment affecting the use of animate beings is usually administered with anaesthesia. In concurrence with this, the experiments will non be repeated or animate beings used will be euthanized when barbarous intervention is involved. Animal testing can be accepted as it allows the betterment of human life quality without the agony of animate beings ( Garner, 2005 ) . Those who are against carnal proving argued that animate beings have the right to populate peacefully. Animal testing is regarded as unkind intervention towards animate beings as it violates carnal rights as their lives are valuable as good ( Le Fanu, 2003 ) . However, their statements are weak because animate beings lack the sense of judgement, and hence are non subjected to moral claims and carnal rights ( Cohen, 1986 ) . Hence, they can non be compared with human life. Equally long as the animate being is experimented upon without hurting, the public assistance of the animate being is non violated. Therefore, it is acceptable to legalise the activity of carnal proving as human life should be prioritized. Although there are many who are against carnal experimentation, the points asserted are non strong plenty to stop the activity of animate being proving. Supporters of carnal proving affirm that animate beings should non hold equal rights with worlds as both of these can non be compared. Animals lack the sense of judgement, therefore human lives ever come foremost before carnal lives. Animals are considered to be protected every bit long as animate beings receive minimal sum of agony. So carnal testing should be legalized in order to salvage more human lives. 2.3 Animal testing is helpful for analyzing the effects of substances. Many new chemical substances are produced every twelvemonth to run into the demand of the planetary market such as in agribusiness, medical specialty and decorative merchandises. The credits should be given to animal proving. The consequence of that peculiar substance has been studied to bring forth infinite helpful merchandises. This can increase the length of service of worlds besides bettering the human criterion of life. By carry oning experiments on animate beings, the research worker can derive priceless information from the populating specimen. Winston ( 2006 ) mentioned that 70 % of the Nobel awards for physiology or medical specialty are contributed from carnal proving. Hence, it is clearly shown that by executing researches on animate beings by analyzing the effects of a substance can convey a immense impact upon the universe. The find of cognition will be delayed or remain undiscovered if carnal testing is non carried out. As stated by Le Fanu ( 2003 ) , primates offer the best experimental theoretical accounts as they have 99 % similarity in cistrons with worlds. Animal testing can be carried out on Primatess to guarantee the safety of some drugs before being tested on worlds. The opportunity for both beings exhibiting the same consequence is high due to the similarity of their cistrons. This in bend can cut down the hazards faced by worlds when get downing the tests. Hence, animate beings are good tools for larning the effects of assorted substances. In malice of this, people who are in resistance to animal proving argue that it must non be legalized merely because carnal experimentation leads to medical discoveries and the result is more rewarding. This statement is deficient to warrant the drawbacks of carnal testing ( Derbyshire, 2004 ) . On the other manus, it is proven that the good result outweighs its drawbacks, so it is rational to legalise the activity of animate being testing. Without analyzing the effects of substances utilizing carnal testing, most of the major vaccinums against disease like infantile paralysis, German measles and hepatitis B used today would non be ( Derbyshire, 2004 ) . New drugs undergo in vitro research, computing machine mold and carnal testing before being tested on worlds. Therefore, every measure is critical in this procedure of analyzing the effects before a drug is introduced into the market. In short, the effects of a substance can be study by transporting out carnal proving which can supply priceless information besides the anatomy of some animate beings are similar to worlds. Even though carnal experimentation its disadvantages, there are still many benefits that can derive by transporting out carnal proving. Therefore, legalisation of carnal testing must be accepted. Furthermore, it can be a good tool for instruction and research intents. 3.0 Recommendation Normally, the use of animate beings for carnal proving delineated as inhuman treatment towards animate beings and should non be legalized. However, it is impossible to censor the pattern of carnal experimentation due to the benefits brought by animate being research towards world. Animal testing is a baronial action to prolong the public assistance of worlds. Since the pattern of carnal proving can non be stopped, the public assistance of animate beings can merely be protected by another attack. The rule of Three Rs , that is refinement , decrease and replacing can be practiced. The research workers are pledged to cut down the figure of animate beings used when executing a research. To utilize the least figure of resources to obtain the fastest consequences, research workers have the inclination of utilizing a smaller figure of animate beings during their research. This is an act that showed the willingness of world to cut down the inhuman treatment towards the animate beings. Besides this, scientists were asked to decrease the grade of agony of the animate being. This can be attained by exclude some gratuitous harmful actions affecting the animate beings. Last, alternate methods should be used whenever possible to replace the use of carnal testing ( Derbyshire, 2006 ) . For case, the public assistance of animate beings can be secured by making so. The pattern of carnal experimentation should compromise between the public assistance of worlds and animate beings so that harmoniousness can be achieved. Animal experimentation still can be practiced, and the Torahs should be purely enforced so that it is non violated by irresponsible people. 4.0 Decision Due to the increased use of carnal testing, the issue of carnal experimentation is acquiring extremely debated and remains relentless. After analyzing several points, it has revealed that carnal testing should be legalized as it helps in the advancement of medical specialty and wellness, human life is more valuable than carnal life, and helps to larn the result of a substance on a life being. Day by twenty-four hours, anti-vivisectionists try to govern out carnal testing by looking at this issue from the animate being s point of position. Concurrently, protagonists of carnal experimentation were able to rebut their statements, by claiming the public assistance of worlds should ever come first before animate beings. They viewed the topic of carnal proving from a broader position and the long term advantages that come from carnal experimentation. Life is neer perfect, some forfeits have to do to accomplish success for a better hereafter. However, carnal research should be carried out a s its advantages are more important than the disadvantages. Bibliography About Animal Testing, ( n.d. ) , Exploitation Animals for Testing: Pro s Versus Con s? viewed 27th March 2010, d hypertext transfer protocol: //www.aboutanimaltesting.co.uk/using-animals-testing-pros-versus-cons.html Archibald, K. ( 2004 ) , Animal Testing: Science or Fiction? viewed 5 February 2010, hypertext transfer protocol: //gan.ca/lifestyle/animal+testing/articles+on+animal+research/index.en.html Cohen, C. , ( 1986 ) The Case for the Use of Animals in Biomedical Research , The New England Journal of Medicine 315, no. 14. 865-69, viewed 28th March 2010, hypertext transfer protocol: //people.ucalgary.ca/~powlesla/personal/hunting/rights/cohen.txt Derbyshire, S. , ( 2004 ) Vivisection: Put human welfare first viewed 5 February 2010, hypertext transfer protocol: //www.spiked-online.com/index.php/site/printable/2468 Derbyshire, S. , ( 2006 ) Tha difficult statements about vivisection viewed 5 February 2010, hypertext transfer protocol: //www.spiked-online.com/index.php/site/printable/223/ Garner, R. , ( 2005 ) Animal Ethical motives , pp129-130, Polity Press, UK Harding, Lauri R.. Animal Experimentation. Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology. 2001. Encyclopedia.com. 25 Feb. 2010 lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.encyclopedia.com gt ; . Le Fanu, J. , ( 2003 ) Vivisection s underdoing-Why carnal experiments can non assist worlds . Monamy, V. , ( 2000 ) Animal Experiment: A usher to the Issues , pp29-34, Cambridge University Press, UK. Shandilya, R. ( 2008 ) Animal Testing Pros viewed 9 February 2010 hypertext transfer protocol: //www.buzzle.com/articles/animal-testing-pros.html Vivisection. UXL Encyclopedia of Science. 2002. Encyclopedia.com. 26 Feb. 2010 lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.encyclopedia.com gt ; . Winston, R. , ( 2006 ) The shame of our silence viewed 27 February 2010, hypertext transfer protocol: //www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2006/may/31/animalwelfare.highereducation

Friday, March 6, 2020

Let Your Nights Before Exams Be Less Traumatic

Let Your Nights Before Exams Be Less Traumatic 10 Revision Techniques For The Examination Eve The eve of the examination day is here. All the efforts, long hours of studying and revising have brought you to this moment. This night is the time when you need to take a breather to unwind, rejuvenate and recollect your thoughts as this will boost your confidence and poise when writing the exam. To assist you to prepare, here are top 10 reading techniques we have gathered from some performing scholars. 1. Stick to What You Know In sports, there is the perception of ‘nothing new, In a marathon, one of the first instructions is not to wear new shoes. This canon applies to foods, clothes and in this case, academics. The night before the examination is not the time to adopt new ways of doing things, for instance, revision techniques, sleeping routines or energy drinks whether legal or not. Stick to the things you have been doing in the past whose impact and effect you are fully aware of despite the advice to try something different, and that comprises to what extent you will consider using the directions given below. 2. Be Prepared We cannot further state the importance of adequate preparation and as the saying goes, ‘failing to prepare, is preparing to fail. The preparations should never begin on the eve of the examination day rather, days or weeks before this moment. Books and all the writing materials should be at your disposal to avoid wasting time looking for them at the last minute. The time you could have utilized doing final touches on specific areas. 3. Bountiful Relaxation The better part of students’ population has the belief that burning the midnight oil the night before the exam is the logical thing to do. Research, however, disapproves this belief and explains that getting sufficient rest is the best approach to digesting new information by the learner. When you get home from school, take a nap (preferably 20-30 minutes) and afterward start reading from the first page. 6.5 – 8 hours is the idle amount of time you should have your night sleep, and for this to happen, you need to retire to bed early. First thing in the morning, study and go through the material for the examination. Depriving yourself of sleep will make you exasperated and frustrated, and this is not a good condition to be doing an exam. Even so, this is our proposal but remember to check out rule #1. 4. Watch What You Eat A healthy meal will go a long way in making the whole experience pleasurable. A balanced diet of carbs, proteins, and fats is recommended particularly in the morning of the exam as you want to keep off the high intake of carbs that will stuff you up with sugar that will make you sleepy. Equally important, low quantities of caffeine should be consumed to evade the risk of overusing them beyond the level of maximum satisfaction. But as always, remember rule #1. 5. Develop a Mock Test for Yourself Developing a mock exam is one of the best ways to prepare for an examination as it will brace you mentally for what to expect. Read and study all the materials provided; they could be, lecture notes, textbooks, discussion notes and more and identify the prime areas examiners like to test. To effectively do this, assume the role of a tough examiner and set the hardest questions that you come across assuming that the examiner will do the same. Attempt to write the exam with no cheating. The pretend exam will give a clue about where you need to polish up and where you are proficient. 6. Have Revision Partners It is quite probable you are not the only one getting ready to perform well in the coming exam. Before the exam, it is practical for you to look for another person you can study with comfortably. The person could be a serious individual you are confident will help you through the revision process or someone who does better than you in that particular subject. Nevertheless, to obtain the best results and reduce distractions, it is vital to keep the number of people joining the group small. 7. Keep off the Internet The internet can be as disruptive as it can be entertaining when preparing for an exam and lest there is a valid reason for you to be online, you should disengage from all the social media platforms. You could start by genuinely searching up a word you have come across while reading but end up watching funny clips and other videos. How you spend the last 12-24 hours before the exam matters a lot and keeping off the internet will help you focus all your concentration on your books. 8. Minimize Disturbances and Interruptions Some people can handle reading in a loud environment with commotions everywhere. The disturbances in this scenario refer to things that divert your attention from your books or make studying impossible. Unluckily, keeping off social media is not enough to guarantee you quality time for studying. Family, friends or a neighbor wanting to catch up pose disturbances that could potentially eat into your study time and to mitigate this situation, try to be as unreachable as possible. 9. Slot in the Pomodore System of Productivity Developed by Francesco Cirillo, the Pomodore system of productivity was designed to imitate the tomato kitchen timers. The model is not the worst style to use to manage your time. In simple terms, the model suggests that a person deals with one thing at a time for 20-25 min after which they can take a break (visit the restroom, go up and down the stairs or do whatever it is that relaxes them) and then resume what they were doing. Repeat the process 4-5 times and then take a 15-30 minutes break and start the process from the top. The Pomodoro method is effective because, for the 20-25 minutes, the individual concentrates on accomplishing a precise mission. 10. Get Set to Go As the exam day approaches, the more nervous and worried you will get anticipating how the day will be like and probably play the day out in your head, perfectly normal. These activities put a lot of pressure on you especially in the morning trying to do everything at once while tensed. However, to ease the confusion on the morning of the exam, it will be wise to prepare everything you will need the day before. Pick out your outfit putting into consideration the weather, prepare breakfast and pack your lunch, arrange your bag pack and even take a shower. The next morning, getting ready will be fast and easy-going. But remember to refer to rule #1.